George Walkden

Papers with are Gold Open Access. Papers with are Green Open Access. If you're struggling to get hold of something, email me.

To appear

  • Hartmann, Frederik, & George Walkden. Accepted. The strength of the phylogenetic signal in syntactic data. Glossa to appear.
  • Walkden, George, Tian Li & Laura Weisshaar. Accepted. Sources for question particles. Journal of Historical Syntax (DiGS 2022 special issue).
  • Wallenberg, Joel C., Caroline Heycock, George Walkden & Henri Kauhanen. Accepted. Grammar competition and variational learning. The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Diachronic Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Walkden, George. Accepted. Parataxis and hypotaxis in the history of English. In Luisella Caon, Moragh Gordon and Thijs Porck (eds.), Keys to the History of English: Diachronic Linguistic Change, Morpho-Syntax and Lexicography. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Pfaff, Alexander, & George Walkden. Accepted. Adjectival articles in early Germanic. In Kristin Bech & Alexander Pfaff (eds.), Diversity in the Old Germanic Noun Phrase. Open Germanic Linguistics. Berlin: Language Science Press.
  • Bech, Kristin, Hannah Booth, Kersti Börjars, Tine Breban, Svetlana Petrova & George Walkden. Accepted. Noun phrase modifiers in early Germanic: a comparative corpus study of Old English, Old High German, Old Saxon, and Old Icelandic. In Kristin Bech & Alexander Pfaff (eds.), Diversity in the Old Germanic Noun Phrase. Open Germanic Linguistics. Berlin: Language Science Press.
  • Walkden, George. Accepted. Scandinavians and verb-second in Northumbrian Old English. In Richard Dance, Sara M. Pons-Sanz & Brittany Schorn (eds.), The Legacy of Medieval Scandinavian Encounters with England and the Insular World. Studies in the Early Middle Ages. Turnhout: Brepols.


  • Walkden, George, Gemma Hunter McCarley, Raquel Montero Estebaranz, Molly Rolf, Sarah Einhaus & Henri Kauhanen. 2023. Sociolinguistic typology meets historical corpus linguistics. Transactions of the Philological Society 121(3), 546-567.
  • Walkden, George. 2023. Review of Elly van Gelderen, Third Factors in Language Variation and Change (Cambridge University Press, 2022). English Language and Linguistics 27(4), 869-871.
  • Kinn, Kari, & George Walkden. 2023. Exploring Norn: a historical heritage language of the British Isles. In Sara M. Pons Sanz & Louise Sylvester (eds.), Medieval English in a multilingual context, 377-404. London: Palgrave.
  • Walkden, George, Juhani Klemola & Thomas Rainsford. 2023. An overview of contact-induced morphosyntactic changes in early English. In Sara M. Pons Sanz & Louise Sylvester (eds.), Medieval English in a multilingual context, 239-277. London: Palgrave.
  • Walkden, George, Miriam Butt & Georg A. Kaiser (eds.). 2023. Proceedings of the 22nd Diachronic Generative Syntax (DiGS) Conference. Special issue of Journal of Historical Syntax, 7(6-19).
  • Kauhanen, Henri, Sarah Einhaus & George Walkden. 2023. Language structure is influenced by the proportion of non-native speakers: A reply to Koplenig (2019). Journal of Language Evolution 8(1), 90-101.


  • Walkden, George. 2022. Review of Matthias Friedrich & James M. Harland (eds.), Interrogating the "Germanic": a category and its use in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages (de Gruyter, 2021). Journal of Germanic Linguistics 34(4), 420-427.
  • Hejná, Michaela, & George Walkden. 2022. A history of English. Textbooks in Language Sciences. Berlin: Language Science Press.
  • Eckardt, Regine, & George Walkden. 2022. A particle-like use of hwæþer: Wisdom’s questions in Boethius. In Xabier Artiagoitia, Sergio Monforte & Arantzazu Elordieta Alcibar (eds.), Discourse particles, 41-64. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


  • Walkden, George. 2021. Against mechanisms: towards a minimal theory of change. In Ulrich Detges, Richard Waltereit, Esme Winter-Froemel & Anne C. Wolfsgruber (eds.), Whither Reanalysis? (special issue in Journal of Historical Syntax) 5(33), 1-27.
  • Walkden, George. 2021. Do the wealthy stay healthy? Rich agreement and verb movement in early English. In Christine Meklenborg & Sam Wolfe (eds.), Secrets of Success (special collection in Journal of Historical Syntax) 5(30), 1-28.
  • Jäger, Agnes, & George Walkden. 2021. Comparison and gradation in West Germanic. In Götz Keydana, Wolfgang Hock & Paul Widmer (eds.), Comparison and gradation in Indo-European, 281-348. Mouton Handbooks of Indo-European Typology 1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Cognola, Federica, & George Walkden. 2021. pro-drop in interrogatives across older Germanic and Romance languages. In Sam Wolfe & Christine Meklenborg (eds.), Continuity and Variation in Germanic and Romance, 97-136. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Vihman, Virve-Anneli, & George Walkden. 2021. Verb-second in spoken and written Estonian. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 6(1): 15, 1-23.


  • Trotzke, Andreas, & George Walkden (eds.). 2020. Recent Advances in Germanic Syntax across Syntactic Domains. Special issue of Nordlyd, 44(1).
  • Wackernagel, Jacob. 2020 [1892]. On a law of Indo-European word order [Über ein Gesetz der indogermanischen Wortstellung]. Edited and translated by George Walkden, Morgan Macleod and Christina Sevdali. Classics in Linguistics 7. Berlin: Language Science Press.
  • Walkden, George, & Hannah Booth. 2020. Reassessing the historical evidence for embedded V2. In Rebecca Woods & Sam Wolfe (eds.), Rethinking verb second, 536-554. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


  • Cognola, Federica, & George Walkden. 2019. pro-drop in interrogatives and declaratives: a parallel study of Old High German and Old Italian. Linguistik Online 100(7), 95-140.
  • Walkden, George, & Anne Breitbarth. 2019. Complexity as L2-difficulty: implications for syntactic change. Theoretical Linguistics 45(3-4), 183-209.
  • Walkden, George, & Anne Breitbarth. 2019. Interpreting (un)interpretability (response to commentaries). Theoretical Linguistics 45(3-4), 309-317.
  • Walkden, George. 2019. The many faces of uniformitarianism in linguistics. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 4(1): 52, 1-17.
  • Fonteyn, Lauren, & George Walkden. 2019. Review of Fischer, Olga, Hendrik De Smet & Wim van der Wurff, A brief history of English syntax (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017). Journal of Historical Syntax 3(1), 1-12.
  • Thoms, Gary, & George Walkden. 2019. vP-fronting with and without remnant movement. Journal of Linguistics 55(1), 161-214.


  • Walkden, George, & Michaela Hejná. 2018. Review of Mary Hayes & Allison Burkette (eds.), Approaches to teaching the history of the English language (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017). Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 53, 256-260.
  • Walkden, George. 2018. Review of Los, Bettelou & Pieter de Haan (eds.), Word order change in acquisition and language contact: Essays in honour of Ans van Kemenade (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2017). Language 94(4), 985-987.
  • Farasyn, Melissa, George Walkden, Sheila Watts, & Anne Breitbarth. 2018. The interplay between genre variation and syntax in a historical Low German corpus. In Richard J. Whitt (ed.), Diachronic corpora, genre, and language change, 281-300. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Kauhanen, Henri, & George Walkden. 2018. Deriving the Constant Rate Effect. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 36(2), 483-521.


  • Walkden, George, & Donald Alasdair Morrison. 2017. Regional variation in Jespersen's Cycle in Early Middle English. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 52(2), 173-201.
  • Walkden, George, & Kristian A. Rusten. 2017. Null subjects in Middle English. English Language and Linguistics 21(3), 439-473.
  • Walkden, George. 2017. Language contact and V3 in Germanic varieties new and old. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 20(1), 49-81.
  • Salvesen, Christine Meklenborg, & George Walkden. 2017. Diagnosing embedded V2 in Old English and Old French. In Eric Mathieu & Rob Truswell (eds.), Micro-change and macro-change in diachronic syntax, 168-181. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Walkden, George. 2017. The actuation problem. In Adam Ledgeway & Ian Roberts (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax, 403-424. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • Walkden, George. 2016. The HeliPaD: a parsed corpus of Old Saxon. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 21(4): 559-571.
  • Bech, Kristin, & George Walkden. 2016. English is (still) a West Germanic language. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 39(1): 65-100.
  • Kinn, Kari, Kristian A. Rusten & George Walkden. 2016. Null subjects in early Icelandic. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 28(1): 31-80.
  • Walkden, George. 2016. Null subjects in the Lindisfarne Gospels as evidence for syntactic variation in Old English. In Julia Fernández Cuesta & Sara M. Pons Sanz (eds.), The Old English gloss to the Lindisfarne Gospels: language, author and context, 237-254. Buchreihe der Anglia. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


  • Börjars, Kersti, Nigel Vincent & George Walkden. 2015. On constructing a theory of grammatical change. Transactions of the Philological Society 113(3): 363-382.
  • Walkden, George. 2015. Verb-third in early West Germanic: a comparative perspective. In Biberauer & Walkden (eds.), Syntax over time, 236-248.
  • Biberauer, Theresa, & George Walkden. 2015. Introduction: changing views of syntactic change. In Biberauer & Walkden (eds.), Syntax over time, 1-13.
  • Biberauer, Theresa, & George Walkden (eds.). 2015. Syntax over time: lexical, morphological, and information-structural interactions. Oxford Studies in Diachronic and Historical Linguistics 15. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Walkden, George. 2015. Review of Ringe, Don & Ann Taylor, A linguistic history of English, vol. 2: The development of Old English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014). Diachronica 32(3): 441-447.


  • Walkden, George. 2014. Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford Studies in Diachronic and Historical Linguistics 12. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Walkden, George. 2014. Object position and Heavy NP Shift in Old Saxon and beyond. In Kristin Bech & Kristine M. Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 313-340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Walkden, George. 2014. Review of Galves, Charlotte, Sonia Cyrino, Ruth Lopes, Filomena Sandalo & Juanito Avelar (eds.), Parameter Theory and Linguistic Change (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). Diachronica 31(1): 150-157.


  • Walkden, George. 2013. The status of hwæt in Old English. English Language and Linguistics 17(3): 465-488. (Winner of the Richard M. Hogg Prize 2011.)
  • Walkden, George. 2013. Null subjects in Old English. Language Variation and Change 25(2): 155-178.
  • Walkden, George. 2013. The correspondence problem in syntactic reconstruction. Diachronica 30(1): 95-122.


  • Walkden, George. 2012. Against Inertia. Lingua 122(8): 891-901.
  • Walkden, George. 2012. Review of Gelderen, Elly van (ed.), Cyclical Change (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2009). Journal of Historical Linguistics 2(2): 283-292.
  • Walkden, George. 2012. Review of Jonas, Dianne, John Whitman & Andrew Garrett (eds.), Grammatical Change: Origins, Nature, Outcomes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012). LINGUIST List 23.1810.
  • Walkden, George. 2012. Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.


  • Walkden, George. 2011. Abduction or Inertia? The logic of syntactic change. In Chris Cummins, Chi-Hé Elder, Thomas Godard, Morgan Macleod, Elaine Schmidt & George Walkden (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth Cambridge Postgraduate Conference in Language Research, 230-239. Cambridge: Cambridge Institute of Language Research.
  • Cummins, Chris, Chi-Hé Elder, Thomas Godard, Morgan Macleod, Elaine Schmidt & George Walkden (eds.). 2011. Proceedings of the Sixth Cambridge Postgraduate Conference in Language Research. Cambridge: Cambridge Institute of Language Research.


  • Walkden, George. 2009. The comparative method in syntactic reconstruction. MPhil dissertation, University of Cambridge.
  • Walkden, George. 2009. Deriving the Final-over-Final Constraint from third factor considerations. Cambridge Occasional Papers in Linguistics 5: 67-72.


  • Walkden, George. 2007. Negation in the history of German before 1350. BA dissertation, University of Cambridge.
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